Josip Broz Tito (7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980) was a statesman of Yugoslavia,
also known for his revolutionary activity; during World War II he was the
leader of the resistance movement of Partisans. Even though, Tito was often
accused of establishing an authoritarian regime, his diplomatic policy
made him a popular person among people of Yugoslavia and many other countries.
He managed to maintain peaceful relations between the nations of Yugoslavia.
As for his foreign policy, Broz was highly valued abroad for being a Non-Aligned
Movement leader. He achieved cooperation and maintained relations with
such countries as Egypt, Indonesia and India, as well as with both Cold
War blocs. Tito received almost 100 honorary foreign decorations, including
the Order of the Bath and the Legion of Honour.
In the period between 1939 and 1980 Tito was General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (later Chairman). In 1943 Josip Broz Tito was appointed the Marshal of Yugoslavia and he held this post till the end of his life. From 1944 to 1963 he held the rank of the Prime Minister and from 1953 to his death he was the President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Josip Broz Tito was born on 7 May 1892 in Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary. First several years of his life he lived in the village of Podsreda, Slovenia. Then, in 1900, Josip Broz entered Kumrovec primary school, but he failed the 2nd grade and graduated in 1905. Two years later he moved to Sisak, where he was involved in the labour movement, and worked as a machinist's apprentice. In 1910, he was accepted to the Social-Democratic Party of Croatia and Slavonia. During the next three-year period Tito changed a lot of jobs: he worked in Kamnik, Cenkov, Munich, Mannheim and Wiener Neustadt.
In the autumn of 1913, Broz was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army and soon he became a sergeant. During World War I he was fighting against Russia on the Eastern front. Despite his brave fighting, in 1915 he was wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians. Tito spent more than a year at the hospital and then he was sent to a labor camp in the Ural Mountains. After the revolt in 1917 he was freed along with other prisoners, and joined the Bolsheviks.
In 1917 he took part in the July Days demonstrations and then had to hide in Omsk, Siberia. There Broz met Pelagija Belousova, his future wife. After the October Socialist Revolution, he joined Omsk Red Guard unit and the Yugoslav section of the Russian Communist Party.
By his arrival to Yugoslavia, the Communist Party (CPY) has already become one of the most influential parties in the country. However, after one of Yugoslav Ministers was assassinated by a communist in 1921, this party was declared illegal and Broz had to work underground. Later, Tito moved to Zagreb, where he became a secretary of Metal Workers' Union, and in 1928 he was appointed the Zagreb Branch Secretary of the CPY.
In April 1941, the armed forces of Yugoslavia were surrounded by the German forces. They couldn’t resist for a long time and had to give up. On 1 May 1941, Tito called on the people of Yugoslavia to unite against the occupation. On 27 June 1941, Tito was appointed Commander in Chief of the national liberation military forces. Soon after that, the Comintern called for immediate action. Thanks to Josip Broz Tito, guerrilla movement of Yugoslavia became one of the most successful in the whole Europe.
Josip Broz Tito was a true leader of The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which existed from 1943 to the beginning of the 1990s. Although, Tito was one of the founding fathers of Cominform, later he became the only member of this organization who opposed USSR and left Cominform to establish his own way of development of the socialist country. As a result, in 1950s – 1960s Yugoslavia was a country with self-management system and strong economy. With his wise internal policy, Tito managed to unite 6 nations of Yugoslavia under the slogan "brotherhood and unity" and such situation hadn't changed until his death. All in all, Josip Broz Tito is considered to be quite a controversial political figure in the Balkans.
Publicity for Josip Broz Tito and print biographies are:
Howard Fast. Tito and His People. New York: Prism Key Press, 2013.
Milovan Djilas, translated bt Vasilije Kojic and Richard Hayes. Tito: The Story from Inside. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.